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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
5 Scripting allows you to create basic to complex web applications at the XWiki page (or view) layer without the need for compiling code or deploying software components. In other words, you can use scripting syntax in addition to wiki and HTML syntax as the contents of an XWiki page.
7 XWiki integrates [[jsr-223>>]] scripting. You can script using several available languages by using one of the following macros:
9 * [[Velocity Macro>>code:Macros.VelocityMacro]] (installed by default in XWiki Enterprise)
10 * [[Groovy Macro>>code:Macros.GroovyMacro]] (installed by default in XWiki Enterprise)
11 * [[Python Macro>>code:Macros.PythonMacro]] (installed by default in XWiki Enterprise)
12 * [[Ruby Macro>>code:Macros.RubyMacro]] (not installed by default in XWiki Enterprise)
13 * [[PHP Macro>>code:Macros.PHPMacro]] (not installed by default in XWiki Enterprise)
15 = XWiki Scripting API =
19 The API is documented in Javadoc format and can be accessed here: [[XWiki API Javadoc>>DevGuide.API]]. If you are not familiar with Java or object oriented programming, you will probably be confused by the API documentation. It is not within the scope of our documentation to teach you all the details about Java, or object oriented programming. You can find all of that information already online. You can also explore the page code found throughout the [[Code Zone>>code:Main.WebHome]] area to see how others have figured out how to achieve a variety of results.
21 == [[Bindings>>code:Macros.ScriptMacro#HBindings]] ==
23 These objects are available to you in scripting languages.
25 * [[The current Document>>]]: **##doc##**
26 * [[The Context of the request>>]]: **##xcontext##**
27 * [[The Request object>>]]: **##request##**
28 * [[The Response object>>]]: **##response##**
29 * [[The XWiki object>>]]: **##xwiki##**
31 == [[XWiki Component>>code:Modules.ComponentModule]] Access ==
33 You can also gain direct access to XWiki components using the following code snippet:
34 Also see: [[Accessing components from Groovy>>DevGuide.WritingComponents#HAccessingacomponentfromgroovy]]
35 Note: This snippet is written in Groovy and will have to be converted to your scripting language.
36 {{code language="java"}}{{groovy}}
37 def greeter = com.xpn.xwiki.web.Utils.getComponent(org.xwiki.component.HelloWorld.class);
38 println greeter.sayHello();
39 {{/groovy}}{{/code}}
41 == XWiki Core Access ==
43 Sometimes the XWiki Api doesn't provide the methods which you need for your application. you can gain raw access the core of XWiki but it presents an increased security risk and requires programming rights to run. Using the core should be avoided if at all possible.
44 {{code language="java"}}{{groovy}}
45 def xc = xcontext.getContext();
46 def wiki = xc.getWiki();
47 def xdoc = doc.getDocument();
48 {{/groovy}}{{/code}}
49 After using this snippet, you will have 3 new objects:
51 * [[The underlying XWikiContext behind the Context object>>]]: **##xc##**
52 * [[The underlying XWiki object which backs the **##xwiki##** object>>]]: **##wiki##**
53 * [[The underlying XWikiDocument behind the current Document>>]]: **##xdoc##**
55 You will find that many of the methods in **##wiki##** and **##xdoc##** require an instance of the XWikiContext, this is the underlying xcontext **##xc##** not the Api context **##xcontext##**.
57 Again, these methods are only for the rare cases when functionality is not provided by the public Api. We put a lot of effort into preserving the behavior of the public Api and much less into preserving the behavior of core methods so you may find that core methods are deprecated, removed, or their behavior is changed in subsequent versions.
59 == Querying XWiki's Model ==
61 From your script you can query the full XWiki's Model. Check the [[Query Guide>>QueryGuide]] for more information.
63 {{id name="velocity"/}}
65 = Velocity Specific Information =
67 Velocity is the only scripting language which can be used without Administration or Programming [[AdminGuide.Access Rights]]. This means you can save velocity scripts using a username with less permission and an exploit of your script is less of a security breach. Also if you are administrating a [[virtual wiki>>AdminGuide.Virtualization]] and you don't have programming rights, you can still do scripting in Velocity.
68 You can [[gain access to the XWiki core>>#HXWikiCoreAccess]] from Velocity but this will require programming rights. Strictly speaking, protected APIs are only available when the page that contains them was last saved by someone who has programming rights.
70 In Velocity you can't import classes and as such you cannot gain direct access to XWiki components as shown [[above>>#HXWikiComponentAccess]]. This leaves you with the provided [[bindings>>#HBindings]] (NOTE: In Velocity, these bindings all start with **##$##** as with all other Velocity variables)
72 For more information about programming in the Velocity language, you can refer to the [[Velocity User Guide>>]].
74 The following Velocity tools are also available in addition to the bindings.
76 * [[List Tool>>]]: **##$listtool##**
77 * [[Number Tool>>]]: **##$numbertool##**
78 * [[Date Tool>>]]: **##$datetool##**
79 * [[Math Tool>>]]: **##$mathtool##**
80 * [[Escape Tool>>]]: **##$escapetool##**
81 * [[Sort Tool>>]]: **##$sorttool##**
82 * Message Tool: **##$msg##** This tool is used to provide internationalized messages based on keys. For more details see the [[How to Write Internationalized Applications tutorial>>DevGuide.InternationalizingApplications]].
84 {{info}}
85 If you wish to add new Velocity tools you'll need to edit your file and follow the instructions in there.
86 {{/info}}
88 To include Velocity scripts in other Velocity scripts, see [[How to include a velocity page into another page>>DevGuide.IncludeInVelocity]].
90 == Other Velocity Variables ==
92 {{info}}
93 These variables can be used but are subject to change in the future.
94 {{/info}}
96 {{id name="HControllingwhethertodisplayCommentsHistoryAttachmentInformationsectionsornot"/}}
98 === Controlling Which Sections to Display ===
100 You can control whether to display Comments/History/Attachment/Information sections or not by setting some velocity variable to "no":
102 {{code}}
103 #set ($showcomments = "no")
104 #set ($showattachments = "no")
105 #set ($showhistory = "no")
106 #set ($showinformation = "no")
107 {{/code}}
109 To remove them all you can set:
111 {{code}}
112 #set($docextras = [])
113 {{/code}}
115 = Groovy Specific Information =
117 Currently all non Velocity scripting languages are only allowed for administrators of a wiki (or users having the 'programming' right).
119 * See Groovy examples in the [[Code Zone>>code:Main.WebHome]], more specifically in the [[Code Snippets area>>code:Snippets.WebHome]]
120 * [[Feeling Groovy>>]]
121 * [[MVC programming with Groovy templates>>]]
123 == Groovy Example ==
125 The following example demonstrates how to use a groovy script to interact with velocity code in your page. This example performs a DNS lookup from the velocity variable ##$hostname## and stores the result in the variable ##$address##.
127 Using XWiki Syntax 2.0:
128 Objects can be passed back and forth between scripting languages by storing them in commonly available objects. One such commonly available object which only lasts the length of the request is the context object, known as xcontext.
129 {{code}}{{velocity}}
130 #set($hostname = "")
131 Host Name: $hostname
132 $xcontext.put("hostname", $hostname)
133 {{/velocity}}
134 {{groovy}}
135 import;
136 host = xcontext.get("hostname");
137 InetAddress addr = InetAddress.getByName(host);
138 String address = addr.getHostAddress();
139 xcontext.put("address", address);
140 {{/groovy}}
141 {{velocity}}
142 IP Address: $xcontext.get("address")
143 {{/velocity}}{{/code}}
145 Using XWiki Syntax 1.0:
146 Because Groovy and Velocity code are parsed together, variables defined in Groovy can be used directly in velocity without storing in and retrieving from the context.
147 {{code}}#set ($hostname = "")
148 Host Name: $hostname
149 <%
150 import;
151 vcontext = context.get("vcontext");
152 host = vcontext.get("hostname");
153 InetAddress addr = InetAddress.getByName(host);
154 String address = addr.getHostAddress();
155 %>
156 IP Address: $address{{/code}}
158 = Python Specific Information =
159 You can run python code in XWiki just like velocity or groovy.
160 {{code language="python"}}{{python}}
161 print "The full name of this document is " + doc.getFullName()
162 {{/python}}{{/code}}
164 {{warning}}
165 Versions prior to [[XWiki Enterprise 2.4>>xwiki:Main.ReleaseNotesXWikiEnterprise24]] have a bug which prevents you from having access to the default objects (doc, xcontext, request, etc.) a [[workaround is available in the code zone>>code:Snippets.AccessToBindingsInPythonSnippet]]
166 {{/warning}}
168 = Scripting In XWiki Syntax 1.0 =
170 XWiki Syntax 1.0 is rendered by an old rendering engine which still supported but for which no further development is planned (it will eventually be removed). Syntax 1.0 has some idiosyncrasies which were solved by syntax 2.0.
172 * The only scripting languages available to you are Velocity and Groovy.
173 * In Groovy, the context is known as: **##context##** not **##xcontext##**
174 * The beginning and end of Groovy scripts are denoted by <% and %> rather than through the [[code:Macros.GroovyMacro]] (using ~{~{groovy}} and ~{~{/groovy}})
175 * Velocity is parsed in a page no matter what (there is no need to invoke the [[code:Macros.VelocityMacro]] using ~{~{velocity}} and ~{~{/velocity}})
177 The last part is important because it means you need to be careful of using $ and # in your document. This is still true inside of <% and %> so you have to be careful writing Groovy.

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